A correlation statistical analysis of the symptoms and function in older adults with comorbidity

It remains uncertain why there are differences in muscle functions between various stages of AD.

Spearman correlation interpretation

Decreased muscle strength without loss of muscle mass in the upper and lower extremities of the female group and those in the lower extremity of the male group were found in the early and mild AD, and both muscle strength and muscle mass decreased in the moderate AD. The mechanisms causing low muscle strength and mass involve multifactorial and complex processes. We analyzed the data of muscle functions and gait speed in each female and male group, as muscle strength and physical performance are considerably different between women and men. Finally, our analysis was based on a relatively old database — and therefore lacks certain information of current interest, such as objectively measured adherence to treatment e. Some studies demonstrated that weight loss occurred before the diagnosis of AD 6 , 7 and this was associated with the faster clinical progression of AD 8. A pathological study showed a significant negative correlation between body mass index BMI and AD pathology 9. We determined the prevalence of major chronic diseases of older adults using the Charlson comorbidity index Descriptive analysis was by age group and categorized by age. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of asthma in the elderly. Another fact not reflected in our data is that a diagnosis of asthma is generally recognized to be ruled out in a significant percentage of patients referred to an asthma unit. Some researchers have revealed that a low serum level of hydroxyvitamin D is associated with sarcopenia 3 , 12 , blood biomarkers for sarcopenia have not yet been identified. We did not collect data of vocal cord dysfunction, wich could also yield interesting results. Sugimoto et al.

In addition to sex hormones, nutritional status, physical activity, comorbidities, and other intrinsic and extrinsic factors may be associated with sex-related muscle functions Although our study did not assess asthma costs, the higher economic burden can be inferred from our results regarding greater disease severity and morbidity in the elderly in our sample.

Therefore, potential therapy and rehabilitation strategies in dynapenia may be different from those in sarcopenia. Notably, a significant correlation between lean mass and whole brain volume was observed in subjects with AD 5.

A correlation statistical analysis of the symptoms and function in older adults with comorbidity

A study conducted by Plaza et al. Sugimoto et al. Finally, we consider that body compositions and muscle functions may be affected by season and outside temperature. Although the prevalence rate of sarcopenia may be dependent on definitions European Working Group on sarcopenia in Older People vs. Some studies demonstrated that weight loss occurred before the diagnosis of AD 6 , 7 and this was associated with the faster clinical progression of AD 8. Similar to the female group, there were significant differences in MMSE scores between the groups. Alterations of body composition are also associated with subjects who have dementia and Alzheimer disease AD. Almost half Statistical analysis Descriptive baseline values are reported as percentages and frequencies for the qualitative data and as means and standard deviations for the quantitative data. According to the Spanish National Institute of Statistics INE , the percentage of the population over 65 years of age, which currently stands at Therefore, potential therapy and rehabilitation strategies in dynapenia may be different from those in sarcopenia. It can be assumed that this natural process combines with immune changes in the airways and comorbidities associated with advancing age to define the characteristics and particular phenotypes of elderly patients with asthma [ 7 ].

These findings suggest that sarcopenia is closely linked to dementia, particularly AD, and may be involved in the pathophysiological process of AD. In addition, further studies are needed to determine the relationships between sarcopenia and other types of dementia, such as vascular dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, besides AD.

How to report spearman correlation

Isometric grip strength was assessed for each hand, and the maximum grip strengths of the right and left hands were analyzed. In particular, prominently decreased muscle quality was found even in the early AD. Values in early, mild, and moderate AD groups are normalized to the mean of the NC group. This study was approved by the ethics committee of Tokyo Medical University. Education was significantly lower in the mild AD group than in the NC group. Comorbidities were self-reported by the patients. Indeed, when analyzing all subjects including the female and male AD groups, a significant relationship between Charlson comorbidity index and sarcopenia was found. YO wrote the manuscript, and HH revised the manuscript. However, the fact that studies to date conducted in elderly populations have been based on small samples possibly explains the contradictory results [ 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 ]. Therefore, the possibility that some chronic diseases are associated with sarcopenia cannot be ruled out. In addition, further studies are needed to determine the relationships between sarcopenia and other types of dementia, such as vascular dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, besides AD. Almost half Materials and Methods Subjects This study included elderly outpatients with AD men and women, mean age References 1. However, because obesity causes significant changes in normal lung physiology reduced expiratory reserve volume and, therefore, functional residual capacity , it has been demonstrated that obesity can be a confounder for a false diagnosis of asthma -- a fact which needs to be borne in mind in the diagnosis of asthma in obese individuals.

Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. As for lung function, The most frequently associated comorbidity was gastroesophageal reflux.

how to report spearman correlation
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Correlation between symptoms and function in older adults with comorbidity.