Stated in an article by S. According to Gibbs, because many criminological theories are discursive, precise predictions cannot be deduced from them, nor is it possible to subject predictions to empirical test, that is, to validation through research. Additionally, contemporary theorists suggest that the individuals who would be "scared straight" by punishment are already disinclined to commit crimes.
By contrast, sociologists have most often advanced sociological theories, arguing that criminal behavior is learned in a socialization process by individuals who are neither biologically nor psychologically flawed.
Further research on the interconnections between biological, psychological, and social factors in crime and criminal conduct will probably be required if integrative efforts are to bear fruit. Not surprisingly, then, a number of scholars have begun to ask whether it might be possible to amalgamate some or all of these varied lines of explanation into an integrated theory and thereby to develop a more powerful causal argument.
In the discussion to follow, most attention is upon explanatory arguments about adult lawbreaking, but some mention is also made of causal arguments about juvenile crime.
Biological theories of crime
Cesare Beccaria ,  author of On Crimes and Punishments —64 , Jeremy Bentham inventor of the panopticon , and other philosophers in this school argued:[ citation needed ] People have free will to choose how to act. While it may be possible to identify groupings such as predatory property crime, it many not be true that individual offenders specialize in that form of crime, hence it may be incorrect to speak of "predatory offenders" as a type of criminal. Labeling theory: People in power decide what acts are crimes, and the act of labeling someone a criminal is what makes him a criminal. This will only take a moment. Adolphe Quetelet used data and statistical analysis to study the relationship between crime and sociological factors. Much of the time, the precise number of offenders who have carried out the reported offenses is unknown because individual law violators engage in varying numbers of crimes per year. Travis Hirschi identified four main characteristics: "attachment to others", "belief in moral validity of rules", "commitment to achievement", and "involvement in conventional activities". Many studies have been done and the conclusion has been made that not all male criminals have this syndrome but that many males with this syndrome end up being criminals. As part of this effort, criminologists and experts across related fields such as healthcare, sociology and psychology work toward an understanding of the causes of criminal behavior, both by proposing new theories and testing existing ones. According to Gibbs, because many criminological theories are discursive, precise predictions cannot be deduced from them, nor is it possible to subject predictions to empirical test, that is, to validation through research. In the first half of the twentieth century, psychological arguments about criminals centered on claims that these persons were feebleminded, or somewhat later, that many of them were suffering from serious mental pathology of one sort or another. However, criminologists have often constructed theories about delinquency separate from explanations of adult criminality. These schools of thought were superseded by several contemporary paradigms of criminology, such as the sub-culture, control, strain, labeling, critical criminology , cultural criminology , postmodern criminology , feminist criminology and others discussed below. Others will retreat or drop out into deviant subcultures such as gang members , or what he calls " hobos ".
Another set of sociological theories also denies the existence of subcultural value systems. January The Classical school arose in the midth century and has its basis in utilitarian philosophy.
Criminology theories chart
However, criminologists have often constructed theories about delinquency separate from explanations of adult criminality. By contrast, the income inequality argument more clearly qualifies as a causal theory, as does the formulation that links gender inequality, pornography readership, and certain other influences to forcible rape. Cesare Beccaria ,  author of On Crimes and Punishments —64 , Jeremy Bentham inventor of the panopticon , and other philosophers in this school argued:[ citation needed ] People have free will to choose how to act. CRIME, THEORIES OF Most accounts of the rise of criminological inquiry indicate that it had its beginnings in mid-nineteenth-century developments in Europe, including the work of Cesare Lombroso , an Italian prison physician, who argued that many criminals are atavists, that is, biological throwbacks to a human type, homo delinquens, that allegedly existed prior to the appearance of homo sapiens. A number of specific sources of criminal activity have been suggested: 1 external enemies and remnants of the overthrown reactionary classes the latter referring to the government of the Republic of China in Taiwan , 2 other remnants of the old pre society, including gangsters and hooligans, who refuse to reform, 3 lingering aspects of bourgeois ideology that value profit, cunning, selfishness, and decadence and thus encourage crime, and 4 the poverty and cultural backwardness that is seen as the legacy of the old society. Stated in an article by S. Baron and Straus's formulation that links gender inequality, pornography, and specific flaws in the social control system is a case in point, as is Kenneth Polk's theorizing and research regarding the various "scenarios" of social interaction that culminate in lethal violence.
Parenthetically, there is considerable controversy in modern America, both among criminologists and among members of the general public, as to whether certain kinds of behavior, such as marijuana use, various consensual sex acts between adults, or abortion, ought to be expunged from or brought into the criminal codes.
Some persons have also pointed to a collection of offenses that receive little visibility in the mass media and elsewhere and have termed these "folk crimes" Ross —, or "mundane crimes" Gibbons Even so, there is a lingering suspicion among a number of criminologists that the criminal acts of at least some lawbreakers, including certain kinds of sexual offenders, can be attributed to faulty socialization and abberant personality patterns Gibbons Positivism comprises three segments: biologicalpsychological and social positivism.
Theories of crime ppt
This theory emphasizes punishment as the best means to deter individuals from committing crimes: Make the cost sufficiently outweigh the reward and individuals will decide that crime is not worth it. They concluded that virtually all of these varying criminal and deviant acts can be accounted for by a single, general theory that asserts they are the work of persons who are characterized by low self-control. Control theories[ edit ] Another approach is made by the social bond or social control theory. Some have singled out crude property crime, consisting of larceny, burglary, robbery, and kindred offenses, as one type of crime; others have placed homicide and assaultive acts into another crime type; while still others have treated forcible rape and other sexual offenses as yet another broad form of lawbreaking. The defense and argument lies in the thoughts that these people and their acts are not their faults but they are actually the result of society i. Others have proposed more limited forms of integration in which, for example, several sociological arguments might be merged into a single formulation e. Even so, perspectives are often identified as broad and relatively unsystematic arguments; while theories are often described as sets of concepts, along with interconnected propositions that link the concepts together into an "explanatory package"; and hypotheses are specific research propositions derived from theories. They also argue that criminal behavior is innate and within a person. Rawson used crime statistics to suggest a link between population density and crime rates , with crowded cities producing more crime. A number of other alternative perspectives began to appear in criminology in the s and s, so that theorizing about crime and criminality has become even more diversified.
Sociological theories The largest number of criminological theories have been developed through sociological inquiry.
If the person cannot exert self-control, he or she might try to get the yacht or the means for it in an illegal way, whereas someone with high self-control will more likely either wait, deny themselves of what want or seek an intelligent intermediate solution, such as joining a yacht club to use a yacht by group consolidation of resources without violating social norms.
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