Outline and evaluate types of attachment

This means infants are biologically programmed with innate behaviors that ensure that attachment occurs.

Tronick et al attachment study

Caregiver-Infant Interactions in Humans Interactions between very young babies and their parents are baby led, with the adult responding to the behavior of the baby. In contrast most infants prefer contact with their mother when they are distressed and need comforting. Lorenz found that geese follow the first moving object they see, during a hour critical period after hatching. The behavioral theory of attachment would suggest that an infant would form an attachment with a carer that provides food. For example, a caregiver who laughs in response to their infants giggling sound and tickles them, is experiencing synchronised interaction. Observations of mother-infant interactions are generally well-controlled procedures, with both mother and infant being filmed, often from multiple angles. Imprinting has consequences, both for short term survival, and in the longer term forming internal templates for later relationships. Reciprocity AO1 The word reciprocal means two-way, or something that is mutual.

Schaffer and Emerson called this sensitive responsiveness. AO3 Heimann showed that infants who demonstrate a lot of imitation from birth onwards have been found to have a better quality of relationship at 3 months.

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Multiple Attachments AO1 Many of the babies from the Schaffer and Emerson study had multiple attachments by 10 months old, including attachments to mothers, fathers, grandparents, siblings and neighbours.

Recently she has started to show great distress when her mother drops her off and cries inconsolably. A problem with the study is it lacks ecological validity; the child may have reacted differently in settings they were familiar with, an example being their own home.

However this is not the case in every country so the pattern of attachment between father and children might be different. However if maternal deprivation lasted after the end of the critical period then no amount of exposure to mothers or peers could alter the emotional damage that had already occurred.

Outline and evaluate types of attachment

The child is observed playing for 20 minutes while caregivers and strangers enter and leave the room, recreating the flow of the familiar and unfamiliar presence in most children's lives. It was clear that the monkeys in this study suffered from emotional harm from being reared in isolation. Animal studies of attachment: Lorenz and Harlow. AO2 Scenario Question Laura is 7 months old she is looked after by a child minder, Jackie, while her parents are at work. This could change the attachment the children make with their fathers. Smiling is an example of reciprocity — when a smile occurs in the infant it triggers a smile in the caregiver, and vice versa. A diary like this is also very unreliable with demand characteristics and social desirability being major issues. Type A showed the child being upset when mother left the room, but did not seek comfort when she returned and showed little stranger anxiety. The psychologist did not follow all the ethical guidelines in this experiment, the child was put under great stress with the mother leaving and returning, and also in the presence of a stranger, upset the child and made it upset. In contrast most infants prefer contact with their mother when they are distressed and need comforting.
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Outline and Evaluate Research Into Types of Attachment Essay